拥车证

拥车证

2020-05-29 13:26:45    所属分类:交通

拥车证英语:Certificate of Entitlement, COE),是政府透过车辆牌照配额许可证的发行,授予成功中标的持有人进行登记,拥有与使用新加坡道路,为期10年的合法权利。需求高时,COE的成本可能超过汽车本身的价值1。

目录 1 起源 2 系统 2.1 车辆配额系统 (VQS) 2.1.1 公式 2.2 合法性 2.3 拍卖流程 2.4 COE Category Refinement in 2013 2.5 牌照分类 3 历史纪录 3.1 配额溢价 3.2 车辆的增长速度 3.3 COE范围 3.4 车辆平均定价 4 在流行文化 5 参考 6 外部链接

起源

起源于新加坡于1990年为了治理城市交通拥堵采取的一种措施。新加坡约有80万辆汽车,其中约50万辆为小汽车。

系统

在购买新的车辆之前,在新加坡,潜在的车主都必需要向陆路交通管理局(LTA)先申办拥车证(Certificate of Entitlement)。

车辆配额系统 (VQS) 公式 合法性 拍卖流程 COE Category Refinement in 2013

In September 2013, The COE system has been refined to include a new criterion for Category A cars. Under the change, the engine power of Cat A cars should not exceed 97 kilowatts (kW). This is equivalent to about 130 brake horsepower. This is in addition to the previous criterion of engine capacity of Cat A cars not exceeding 1600 cubic centimetres. However, cars with engine power output exceeding 97 kW will be classified under Category B in COE bidding exercises starting February 2014 despite having engine capacity below 1600 cubic centimetres. The review of the COE categories' criteria was because LTA wanted to differentiate and regulate the buying of mass market and premium cars under Cat A in a bid to control COE prices that hovered closer and closer to S$100,000.2

牌照分类

最初,牌照准证(COEs)分成八大类,但该系统现已被简化为仅仅五个类别。A组、B组、与D组 是不可转让的。Taxis used to be classed under category A but issuance of COEs became unrestricted from August 2012 onwards.3

Prior to May 1999

Category Vehicle Class
Cat 1 Cars 1000cc & below
Cat 2 Cars 1001-1600cc & Taxis
Cat 3 Cars 1601-2000cc
Cat 4 Cars above 2000cc
Cat 5 Goods Vehicles & Buses
Cat 6 Motorcycles
Cat 7 "Open" (for any kind of vehicle)

Current Categories

Category Vehicle Class
Cat A Cars 1600cc & below, and the engine power should not exceed 97 kilowatts (kW)
Cat B Cars 1600cc & above, or the engine power output exceeds 97kW
Cat C Goods Vehicles & Buses
Cat D Motorcycles
Cat E "Open" (for any kind of vehicle)
历史纪录 配额溢价

March 2009 2nd Open Bidding

Category Current Quota Premium Previous Quota Premium / Difference
A (1600cc and below), taxi S$5,116 S$4,890 S$226
B (1601cc and above) S$5,001 S$5,101 S$100
C (Goods Vehicle and Bus) S$5,600 S$5,300 S$300
D (Motorcycles) S$912 S$958 S$46
E (Open) S$5,982 S$5,700 S$282

April 2010 1st Open Bidding

Category Current Quota Premium Previous Quota Premium / Difference
A (1600cc and below), taxi S$34,001 S$28,389 S$5,612
B (1601cc and above) S$45,501 S$36,089 S$9,412
E (Open) S$49,000 S$42,001 S$6,999

December 2011 1st Open Bidding4

Category Current Quota Premium Previous Quota Premium / Difference
A (1600cc and below), taxi S$50,001 S$52,357 S$2,356
B (1601cc and above) S$70,003 S$72,317 S$2,314
E (Open) S$71,000 S$74,345 S$3,345

2013 results: 1

车辆的增长速度
Period % Remark
May 1990 to May 2009 3.0 3.0% + deregistrations as per last annum
Jun 2009 to Jun 2010 1.5 Reduced to 1.5% + deregistrations as per last annum, partly due to low price COE
Jul 2010 to Jul 2012 1.5% as per last annum + recent half-yearly deregistrations, rate are extended to July
Aug 2012 to Jan 2013 1.0 Taxi are moved to Cat E
Feb 2013 to Jan 2014 0.5 Reduced to 0.5% and expected to last till Jan 2015
Feb 2014 to Jan 2015 Change to recent quarterly deregistrations
Feb 2015 onwards 0.25 Reduced to 0.25%

From April 2010, the COE quota calculation was amended. Under the new methodology, the Land Transport Authority (LTA) recycles the COE quota from the actual vehicle deregistrations in the most recent six-month period back into the system. Instead of an annual quota, figures will be revised every six months. For example, there are 800,000 vehicles as of January. Based on the allowable growth rate of 1.5 percent, there will be an additional 6000 COEs for sale every six months. On top of the number of vehicles deregistered in the same period (for example, 20,000) this means the COE quota for July to December will be 26,000.

In early October 2011, Singapore Minister for Transport Lui Tuck Yew has said that Singapore's annual vehicle growth cap would be cut further from 2012. The annual vehicle population growth rate will be lowered from the current 1.5% to 1.0% in 2012, and then to 0.5% in 2013 and 2014, and then to 0.25% in 2015.

The lower vehicle growth rate will be more closely aligned to the pace of road growth going forward. However, in May 2012, Lui Tuck Yew did an about turn and said that more COE may be released and the plans to quotas cut car growth would be delayed.

COE范围
Previous Category Highest Lowest1 Current Category Highest Lowest Remarks
May 1990 – Apr 1999 SGD Period SGD Period From May 1999 SGD Period SGD Period
Cat 1 (1000 cc & below) 41,008 Jul 1997 210 Feb 1991 Cat A3 92,100 Jan 2013 2 Nov 2008a a. Major historical plunge partly due to 2008 financial crisis and over-projections of vehicle de-registrations in 2008/09
b. Major historical plunge partly due to 1997 Asian financial crisis
Cat 2 (1001 – 1600 cc) & taxi 62,208 Jul 1997 909 Mar 1991
Cat 3 (1601 – 2000 cc) 83,500 Dec 1994 50 Jan 1998b Cat B 96,210 Jan 2013 200 Jan 2009a
Cat 4 (2001 cc & above) 110,500 Dec 1994 800 Apr 1991
Cat 5 (Goods Vehicle & Bus) 39,000 Dec 1994 1 Apr 1991 Cat C 63,035 Dec 2012 1 Dec 2006–
Mar 2007c
c. Partly due to strict emission standards from Oct 2006
Cat 6 (Motorcycle) 3,506 Aug 1997 1 Jan 1994,
Feb 1994d
Cat D 2,704 Jan 2014 1 Nov 2002–
Mar 2003d
d. Mainly due to higher quota and lower than minimum bidders
Cat 7 (Open) 95,986 Dec 1994 998 Mar 1991 Cat E 97,889 Jan 2013 3,200 Jan 2009
Cat 8 (Weekend Car)2 45,300 Sep 1994 1,110 Oct 1991 OPC COE rebate up to $17,000

1. Excluded initial quote for first 3 months (May~Jul'90). Previous lowest record due to higher quota for year 1991
2. It was stopped on Sep 1994, the scheme was replaced by the Off-Peak Car rebate
3. Taxi are moved to Cat E from Aug 2012

车辆平均定价

买车的时候详细的成本结构可以在这个网站上找到。2
All prices are in Singapore dollars dated March 2012

Compact : S$71,999 – S$89,500 Mid-size : S$81,999 – S$149,000 Full-size sedan : > S$150,000 在流行文化 参考 ^ Grant, Jeremy. Singapore overtakes Tokyo as world's most expensive city. FT.com. 4 March 2014 7 July 2014.  ^ COE System to Include Engine Power for Cat A Cars ^ Taxis out of COE bidding process from August. Channel News Asia. 27 July 2012 27 February 2013.  ^ Royston Sim. Certificate of Entitlement premiums fall for all categories. Straits Times: Motoring, A Singapore Press Holdings Website. 21 December 2011.  外部链接 Land Transport Authority Informatic web on motoring in Singapore COE Prices Interactive COE Prices TODAYOnline
拥车证

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